Department of Philosophy

Professors Emeriti: James W. Felt, S.J., William A. Parent, William J.Prior

Professors:一道本不卡免费高清 Philip J. Kain, Michael J. Meyer, Shannon Vallor (Regisand Dianne McKenna Professor)

Associate Professors: Christopher B. Kulp, Scott LaBarge, Lawrence J.Nelson (Department Chair), Mark A. Ravizza, S.J.

Assistant Professors: Meilin M. Chinn, Kimberly Dill, Erick Ramirez,Eric Yang

Senior Lecturer: Brian Buckley

Lecturers: Erin Bradfield, Robert Shanklin

一道本不卡免费高清The Department of Philosophy offers a degree program leading to thebachelor of arts in philosophy. Philosophy inquires directly into therelation of human beings to the world: what we are, how we know, whatvalues are, how we live. Worth pursuing for its own sake, philosophicalinquiry also promotes analytical thinking and precise expression and,thus, is excellent undergraduate preparation for a number ofprofessional careers in areas such as law, government, finance, media,writing, and computer programming. To qualify for honors in philosophy,the major ordinarily must have a 3.5 grade point average in philosophycourses and complete PHIL 197 with a grade of A− or better.

Requirements for the Major

In addition to fulfilling undergraduate Core Curriculum requirements forthe bachelor of arts degree, students majoring in philosophy mustcomplete the following departmental requirements:

  • One lower-division course from PHIL 40--44. Waived for students whocompleted a Foundations一道本不卡免费高清 Core sequence in Philosophy (PHIL 1A/2A orPHIL 11A/12A)

  • 一道本不卡免费高清PHIL 14, 15, and 16 (History of Western Philosophy)

  • PHIL 17 or 18 (Informal or Formal Logic)

  • PHIL 19 (Knowledge and Reality)

  • One course from PHIL 124--127, 141A--151, 174--181A (History ofPhilosophy)

  • 一道本不卡免费高清One course from PHIL 174--180 (Non-Western Philosophy)

  • 一道本不卡免费高清One course from PHIL 109--112, 120--129, 152 (Ethical Theory)

  • One course from PHIL 150--165 (Metaphysics and Epistemology)

  • 一道本不卡免费高清Four additional upper-division courses from PHIL 108--199

  • No one class may fulfill both the Non-Western Philosophy and theHistory of Philosophy requirement

Requirements for the Minor

Students must fulfill the following requirements for a minor inphilosophy:

  • PHIL 14 and 15 (History of Western Philosophy)

  • 一道本不卡免费高清PHIL 17 or 18 (Informal or Formal Logic)

  • Four upper-division courses PHIL 108--199

Emphases in Philosophy

一道本不卡免费高清An emphasis may be taken as part of a philosophy major or minor. Fouremphases in philosophy are offered: Pre-Law and Justice (P), Ethics andValues (E), Science and Analysis (S), and History of Philosophy (H).

To graduate with an emphasis, students must complete four upper-divisioncourses (PHIL 108--199) chosen from the following approved list:

  • Pre-Law and Justice (P) courses: PHIL 108, 110, 113, 116--129, 152,156, 162, 185A, 185B, 186

  • 一道本不卡免费高清Ethics and Values (E) courses: PHIL 108--129, 141, 152, 159, 165,176, 181, 183, 184, 185A, 185B, 186

  • 一道本不卡免费高清Science and Analysis (S) courses: PHIL 128, 150--165

  • 一道本不卡免费高清History of Philosophy (H) courses: PHIL 124--127, 141--151, 155,174--181, 184

Lower-Division Course: Critical Thinking & Writing

1A. and 2A. Critical Thinking & Writing I and II

A two-course themed sequence featuring study and practice of academicdiscourse, with emphasis on critical reading and writing, composingprocesses, information literacy, and rhetorical situation. There arecourse-by-course variations as to the theme of the course. Successfulcompletion of CTW I (PHIL 1A) is a prerequisite for CTW II (PHIL 2A). (4units each quarter)

Lower-Division Course: Cultures & Ideas

11A. and 12A. Cultures & Ideas I and II

一道本不卡免费高清A two-course sequence focusing on a major theme in philosophy andculture over a significant period of time. Courses may address autonomy,personhood, community, justice, human dignity, law, the self, religion,cosmology, and other topics. Successful completion of C&I I (PHIL 11A)is a prerequisite for C&I II (PHIL 12A). (4 units each quarter)

Lower-Division Courses: History of Western Philosophy

14. History of Western Philosophy: Classical and Medieval

Beginnings of Western philosophy. Representative philosophers of theGreek and medieval traditions, with attention to their historical milieuand their relevance to contemporary thought. Also listed as CLAS 51. (4units)

15. History of Western Philosophy: Early Modern

Principal fashioners of the modern mind. 17th- and 18th-centuryphilosophers studied in the historical context of their times withattention to their impact on the present. (4 units)

16. History of Western Philosophy: Modern

Introduction to the closer roots of modern philosophy, from the criticalrevolution of Kant to some of the dominant currents of the 20th century.Prerequisite: PHIL 15 strongly recommended. (4 units)

Lower-Division Courses: Logic and Reasoning

17. Informal Logic

Introduction to the art of logical reasoning. Emphasis on the ability torecognize common fallacies of argumentation. (4 units)

18. Introduction to Formal Logic

一道本不卡免费高清Introduction to the study of deductive inference, including traditionaland modern techniques. (4 units)

Lower-Division Course: Contemporary Philosophical Writing

19. Knowledge and Reality

Introduction to fundamental philosophical concepts and debates inepistemology (the study of knowledge) and metaphysics (the study offundamental reality), through exposure to selected works that exemplifythe best qualities of contemporary philosophical writing. Students willengage in intensive writing practice to develop their own competency incontemporary philosophical writing. Prior completion of PHIL 14 or 15required. Course fulfills Advanced Writing Core requirement. (4 units)

Lower-Division Courses: Ethics

21. Introduction to Ethics

一道本不卡免费高清Consideration of the traditional theoretical questions posed in moralphilosophy: standards that determine the morality of an action, themotives and consequences of an act, the good life. Authors studied mayinclude Plato, Aristotle, Aquinas, Bentham, Mill, Kant. Satisfies theEthics Core requirement for the bachelor's degree in all undergraduatecolleges except the Business School. (4 units)

22. Ethics in the Digital Age

一道本不卡免费高清Formal inquiry into normative ethics and the ethical dimensions of thedigital revolution, including (but not limited to) privacy andsurveillance, intellectual property, hacking and cybercrime, robotics,artificial intelligence, computer games, virtual identities, and virtualworlds. Satisfies the Ethics Core requirement for the bachelor's degreein all undergraduate colleges except the Business School. (4 units)

23. Ethics and Gender

Formal inquiry into normative ethics. Emphasis on ethical principles andtheories as they apply to concepts and practices related to sex,masculinity, and femininity. Special attention to gender theory andfeminism. Topics studied may include pornography, sexuality,heterosexual/gay marriage and family life, domestic violence and rape,abortion and reproduction, fashion and appearance, genderdiscrimination, sex-based affirmative action, and sexual harassment.Satisfies the Ethics Core requirement for the bachelor's degree in allundergraduate colleges except the Business School. Also listed as WGST

  1. (4 units)

24. Ethics and Gender in Film

Formal inquiry into normative ethics. Emphasis on ethical principles andtheories as they relate to concepts of gender and sex applicable to bothmales and females. In addition to written texts about ethics and gender,both dramatic and documentary films will be studied to illustrate howgender is both experienced by men and women and portrayed in the livedworld. Topics studied may include sexuality and sexual orientation, maleand female gender roles, heterosexual/homosexual marriage and familylife, sexual violence, transsexuality, abortion and reproduction, andgender discrimination. Films studied may include The Hunting Ground,Thelma and Louise, Southern Comfort, Boys Don't Cry, The BroCode, Sliding Doors, The Mask You Live In, If These Walls CouldTalk, The Laramie Project, and In the Company of Men一道本不卡免费高清. Satisfies theEthics Core requirement for the bachelor's degree in all undergraduatecolleges except the Business School.(4 units)

25. Ethics in Society

Formal inquiry into normative ethics. Special attention to generalethical principles and to the practical application of these principlesto current ethical issues in society. Topics may include the concepts offreedom, obligation, value, rights, justice, virtue, and moralresponsibility, as applied to issues such as abortion, punishment,economic distribution, racial and sexual discrimination, sexuality,political obligation, nuclear war, and pornography. Satisfies the EthicsCore requirement for the bachelor's degree in all undergraduate collegesexcept the Business School. (4 units)

26. Ethics in Business

Formal inquiry into normative ethics. Special attention to generalethical principles and the application of these principles to currentmoral issues in business. Topics may include truth in advertising,corporate social responsibility, affirmative action, capitalism,government regulation, quality of work-life, environmental and resourceissues, and ethical codes of conduct. Students who take MGMT 6 or MGMT6H may not take this course for credit. Partial fulfillment of the CivicEngagement Core requirement for students in the Business School. (4units)

27. Ethics in Health Care

Formal inquiry into normative ethics. Special attention to generalethical principles and the application of these principles to currentmoral issues in medicine and the health sciences. Topics may include thedefinition of death, informed consent, the just distribution of healthcare, euthanasia and assisted suicide, genetic manipulation, assistedreproduction, research involving human subjects, decisions to forgolife-sustaining medical treatment, truth-telling, and organtransplantation. Satisfies the Ethics Core requirement for thebachelor's degree in all undergraduate colleges except the BusinessSchool. (4 units)

28. Ethics in Politics

一道本不卡免费高清Formal inquiry into normative ethics. Emphasis on moral issues inpolitical theory. Possible topics include the concepts of rights,justice, dignity, equality, personhood, desert, retributivism, andutility. Issues discussed may include alienation, individualism,community, discrimination, capital punishment, sexual equality, civildisobedience, revolution, and world hunger. Satisfies the Ethics Corerequirement for the Bachelor's degree in all undergraduate collegesexcept the Business School. (4 units)

29. Ethics and the Environment

Formal inquiry into normative ethics. Emphasis on moral issues and theenvironment. Topics include animal rights, anthropocentrism,cost-benefit analysis, human rights, interspecies justice, land (use andvalue), population control, rights (of future generations and naturalobjects), values (moral and aesthetic) and preferences, wildlifeprotection, and wilderness. Satisfies the Ethics Core requirement forthe bachelor's degree in all undergraduate colleges except the BusinessSchool. (4 units)

30. Ethics and the Law

一道本不卡免费高清Formal inquiry into normative ethics. Emphasis on moral issues andconcepts in contemporary legal debates such as the rule of law, the dutyto aid, the relationship between law and ethics, freedom of speech, theright to die, criminally charging minors as adults, the legalization ofdrugs, obscenity and indecency, the moral justification for punishment,including capital punishment, and state regulation of marriage.Satisfies the Ethics Core requirement for the bachelor's degree in allundergraduate colleges except the Business School. (4 units)

31. Ethics and Marginalized Persons

一道本不卡免费高清Formal inquiry into normative ethics. Emphasis on ethical principles andthe application of these theories to persons who are gay, disabled,elderly, and poor. Special attention to recognition, voice,authenticity, dialogue, and place as basic needs of personhood. Subjectsraised will target marginalization and the damage it does to persons.Topics studied may include difference, shame, fear, loneliness, desirefor accommodation, invisibility, justice, and discrimination. Satisfiesthe Ethics Core requirement for the bachelor's degree in allundergraduate colleges except the Business School. Also fulfills theELSJ Core requirement.(4 units)

32. Neuroethics

一道本不卡免费高清Formal inquiry into normative ethics. Emphasis on issues in the ethicsof neuroscience and the neuroscience of ethics. Questions raisedinclude: how do advances in fMRI resolution impact our right to keep ourmental lives private? In light of advances in medical care, should weamend the current medical definition of brain death? Is neurosurgery amorally acceptable approach to certain mental illnesses? What do theneurosciences tell us about what it means to be a rational and moralagent? Do the neurosciences prove that we lack free will? Satisfies theEthics Core requirement for the bachelor's degree in all undergraduatecolleges except the Business School. (4 units)

33. Ethics and Race

Formal inquiry into normative ethics. Emphasis on moral issues regardingrace in society. Personhood, character, fairness, empathy, and justice(substantively and procedural) will be offered as ethical lenses used toevaluate racial questions. Issues discussed may include nobodiness,affirmative action, intersectionality, stereotyping, mass incarceration,Black Feminist thought, redlining, poverty and employment, the RadicalContract, privilege, policing, and lateral violence. Particular emphasiswill be given to the African-American experience. Satisfies the EthicsCore requirement for the bachelor's degree in all undergraduate collegesexcept the Business School. (4 units)

34. Ethics and Adulthood

A philosophical inquiry into the ethical challenges facing young peopleas they transition into adulthood. The course is grounded in majornormative ethical theories in the Western philosophical tradition.Ethical issues dealt with may include: the nature and cultivation ofmoral virtue, the ethical dimensions of autonomy and responsibility,marriage, friendship, duties to self and others, and the implications ofelectronic technology for personal relationships. Satisfies the EthicsCore requirement for the bachelor's degree in all undergraduate collegesexcept the Business School. (4 units)

35. The Ethics in Drama, The Drama in Ethics

An examination of philosophical ethics both in theory and in thedramatic portrayal of characters struggling with particular ethicalproblems. Also an exercise in writing original dialogue for characterscontending with ethical decisions and in acting dramatic dialogue takenfrom published plays and student scene writing. Students' attention andefforts will be directed not only to the cognitive, but also to theaffective and bodily dimensions of ethical decision-making in particularcircumstances. This course is intended to be a medling of philosophicalreflection and inquiry with theatrical artistic expression in order tobetter understand what it means to be a virtuous person who lives a goodlife in an ambiguous world. Also listed as THTR 60. Satisfies the EthicsCore requirement for the bachelor's degree in all undergraduate collegesexcept the Business School. (4 units)

Lower Division Course: Science, Technology, and Society

40. Science, Technology, and Society

An investigation of the philosophical questions surrounding the socialimpact of science and technology, exploring issues such as technologicaldeterminism, the impact of technology on moral life, and the complexrelationship among science, technology, and modern culture. Specialattention may be given to the social and ethical implications ofspecific technologies such as robotics, nanotechnology, neuroimaging,and/or technologies for digital communication. Course fulfills the STSCore requirement. (4 units)

Lower-Division Course: Diversity and Experiential Learning for Social Justice

41. Diversity and Disability

一道本不卡免费高清Examines the nature and meaning of disability: what it is like livingwith disability (one's own or others'); the legal, social, and ethicalaspects of disability (particularly on justice and individual andpersonal treatment of disabled persons); and the intersections ofdisability with other social categories such as class, ethnicity, sexualorientation, age, and race. Students will be exposed to these issues byreading scholarly and nonfiction texts, doing research, viewing films,and working with disabled persons in the community through the Arrupepartnerships for community-based learning. Course fulfills the ELSJ andDiversity: U.S. Perspectives Core requirements. (4 units)

Lower-Division Courses: Religion, Theology, and Culture

42. Faith and Reason

一道本不卡免费高清Exploration into possible combinations of faith and reason. Does faithalone provide truth? Must faith precede knowledge? Do faith and reasonwork in harmony, or does faith act as a barrier to accurate reasoning?Additional questions may include: If belief is not to be blind, whatpreambles to faith are required? What constitutes sufficient reasons forreasonable belief? Is faith rational or irrational or neither? If faithrelies on reasoning, what type of reasoning? What defines belief?Special attention may be given to how persons of faith may employphilosophy to explore and articulate their belief. Course fulfills theRTC 2 Core requirement. (4 units)

43. Religion and American Law

一道本不卡免费高清Examination of the interface of religion and American constitutional,statutory, and common law. Topics may include the legal status anddefinition of religion; the First Amendment guarantee of free exerciseof religion and prohibition on government establishment of religion;religious objections to health services; conscientious objection to warand military service; free exercise and dangerous or restrictiveactivities; clergy malpractice and improper sexual behavior; theministerial exception to employment anti-discrimination laws; religionand politics; disputes over ownership of church property; and teachingin public schools about religion and science. Texts will includejudicial opinions and other legal materials. Course fulfills the RTC 2Core requirement. (4 units)

Lower-Division Course: Civic Engagement

44. Free Speech, Hate Speech, and Civil Discourse

一道本不卡免费高清Examination of the ethical, legal, and social implications of theexercise and limitation of free speech with special emphasis onregulation of speech and intellectual inquiry on college campuses.Topics may include "politically correct" speech; opposition to campusspeech from individuals with controversial or biased views; use of"trigger warnings"; academic freedom and unpopular speech about gender,race, ethnicity, and religion; definitions of "hate speech"; the valueof intellectual diversity of viewpoints; the virtue of tolerance; thedifferences among ethical, legal, and prudential limits on speech; andimportance of civil discourse for engagement with social and legalpolicy. Course fulfills the Civic Engagement Core requirement. (4 units)

45. Civility and Democracy

Civility is derived from citizen and city一道本不卡免费高清. This course willexplore the ability of humans to live together and thrive as citizenswithin democratic order. Primary emphasis will be given to definingcivility (and incivility), exploring its connections with justice,questioning whether or not it may coincide with civil disobedience,describing its links to law and the rule of law, and highlighting itsreliance on vibrant public discourse. Specific topics may includemarginalization, tolerance, free speech, safety, empathy, politicalrhetoric, voting, and education. Fulfills Civic Engagement CoreRequirement. (4 units)

Upper-Division Courses

一道本不卡免费高清Note: Upper-division courses that may be used to fulfill an emphasisrequirement are indicated in the course title with a parentheticalletter: Pre-law and Justice (P); Ethics and Values (E); Science andAnalysis (S); and History of Philosophy (H).

Upper-Division Courses: Ethics

108. Special Topics in Applied Ethics (E, P)

一道本不卡免费高清Selected philosophical problems in applied ethics studied at an advancedlevel. (5 units)

109. Special Topics in Ethical Theory (E)

Selected philosophical problems in ethical theory studied at an advancedlevel. (5 units)

110. Classic Issues in Ethics (E, P)

一道本不卡免费高清Exploration of the fundamental questions of ethics through close studyof some of the great works of moral philosophy, such as Plato'sRepublic, Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics, Kant's Groundwork, and Mill'sUtilitarianism. (5 units)

111. Ethical Theory (E)

一道本不卡免费高清Examination of major philosophers or issues in moral and socialphilosophy. Topics may include dignity, moral rights and obligations,justice, moral relativism, virtue, the good, and happiness. (5 units)

112. Ethics, Authenticity, Freedom, and Vocation (E)

一道本不卡免费高清An inquiry into the moral ideal of being an authentic self, the meaningand moral significance of freedom, and the relation of these to vocationunderstood as an individual's choice of major projects in the world andfundamental values, as response to the multiple calls of that which isoutside of the self, and as the common experience of being summoned by aspecific person seeking help or attention and of having to respond tothis summons. The central premise of the course is that anyone who asksthe classic questions of vocation (What am I good at doing? What am Ipassionate about doing? What are my values? Where do I find meaning oflife? Where do I and the needs of the world and other personsintersect?) should reflect systematically on what it means to be anauthentic self and what it means to be an agent with freedom of choice,as well as on the basic moral values that attach to authentic freedom.Satisfies the Ethics Core requirement for the bachelor's degree in allundergraduate colleges except the Business School. (5 units)

113. Bioethics (E, P)

Examination of ethical concepts and problems encountered in the practiceof medicine and other health professions as well as the conduct ofbiomedical science. Subjects studied may include the protection of humanand animal subjects involved in scientific research, stem cell researchand clinical investigation, public support for biomedical research, theproper character and scope of the clinician-patient relationship,informed consent, truth-telling, confidentiality of medical information,the duty to warn third parties of familial genetic risks and of threatsposed by mentally disturbed patients, genetic testing and screening,abortion, the right to refuse life-sustaining medical treatment,surrogate decision making for the incompetent, physician assistedsuicide, euthanasia, allocation of scarce medical resources, thedefinition of death, organ transplantation, and justice in providingaccess to basic health care services. (5 units)

116. Environmental Philosophy and Ethics (E, P)

Formal inquiry into normative ethics. Investigation of environmentalissues from the point of view of classical ethical perspectives andconsideration of how questions about the moral value of the environmentprovide new challenges to such classical theories. Topics may includeanimal rights, human rights, the rights of future generations, therights of nature, anthropocentrism, interspecies justice, land (use andvalue), wilderness, and values and preferences. (5 units)

117. Bioethics and the Law (E, P)

一道本不卡免费高清Bioethics (normative ethics as applied to medicine and the health careprofessions, the life sciences, and biotechnology) is partiallyconstituted by legal norms and values. Exploration of the evolvingrelationship between law and bioethics, as well as the substantive lawand ethics of selected topics by studying course cases and bioethicaltexts. Topics studied may include the definition of death, informedconsent, the physician-patient relationship, euthanasia/assisted suicideand the law of criminal homicide, advance directives for health care,confidentiality, involuntary civil commitment for mental illness,regulation of research involving human subjects, the use of nonhumananimals in biomedical research, the legal and moral status of prenatalhumans, parental control over the medical care of minor children, tortlaw and medical practice, and state licensure of healthcareprofessionals. Satisfies the Ethics Core requirement for the bachelor'sdegree in all undergraduate colleges except the Business School. (5units)

118. Ethics and Constitutional Law (E, P)

Exploration of how the constitutional rights and interests ofindividuals and groups of individuals can be understood and justified bymoral and social/political philosophy. Particular constitutionalsubjects to be studied may include the Fourth Amendment (search andseizure), obscenity and pornography, equal protection, genderdiscrimination, freedom of speech, freedom of association, free exerciseof religion, State establishment of religion, discrimination againstgays and lesbians, privacy and personal autonomy, privacy andreproductive freedom, and substantive due process. Readings typicallyconsist of Supreme Court cases. Satisfies the Ethics Core requirementfor the bachelor's degree in all undergraduate colleges except theBusiness School. (5 units)

119. Ethics and Criminal Law (E, P)

一道本不卡免费高清Examination of the moral and conceptual foundations of contemporarycriminal law. Topics studied may include ethical justifications ofpunishment (utilitarianism, retributivism), sentencing andproportionality, the nature of criminal acts and the guilty mind (mensrea), degrees of culpability, mental capacity for mens rea, causation,justification and excuse, types of criminal homicide and the deathpenalty, women's rights and feticide laws, the right ofself-defense/defense of others, necessity, duress, the insanity defense,trying juveniles as adults, attributions of criminality (attempt,complicity, conspiracy), plea bargaining and justice, applicability oftheories of justice to criminal behavior, constitutional and moralrights of suspects and convicts, and the criminal liability ofcorporations. Satisfies the Ethics Core requirement for the bachelor'sdegree in all undergraduate colleges except the Business School. (5units)

120. Feminism and Ethics (E, P)

Exploration of theories of feminism, patriarchy, and gender, and ofethics as applied to the contemporary experience and social situation ofwomen. Topics may include equality, affirmative action, comparableworth, pornography, sexuality, reproductive technologies, maternal-fetalrelations, rape and domestic violence, female body image, cosmeticsurgery, "alternative" families, militarism, and environmentalism.Satisfies the Ethics Core requirement for the bachelor's degree in allundergraduate colleges except the Business School. Also listed as WGST

  1. (5 units)

121. Political Philosophy and Ethics (E, P)

一道本不卡免费高清Moral issues in political philosophy, especially traditional ethicaljustifications for political authority. Topics may include theories ofpolitical authorization and contract theory, rights, liberty, equality,justice, community, revolution, civil disobedience, and others. (5units)

122. Virtue Ethics (E, P)

一道本不卡免费高清Exploration of various basic issues in ethics, such as friendship,courage, or compassion, from the point of view of virtues or (moral)character. Close study of classic authors---for example, Aristotle---aswell as contemporary writers on virtue ethics. (5 units)

123. Philosophy of Law (E, P)

Investigation into the defintion, use, and application of law.Particular attention will be given to the intersection (ornon-intersection) of law and morality. Specific topics may include civildisobedience, the rule of law, duty to follow the law, and legalinterpretation. (5 units)

124. Natural Law Tradition (E, P, H)

一道本不卡免费高清Examination of the intersection (or non-intersection) of morality andlaw within the 2,500-year natural law tradition and its most famousexponent, Thomas Aquinas. Particular topics addressed may includejustice, politics, rights, the social contract, international law,positive law, and the sources of law. Applications of natural lawreasoning in areas such as criminal justice, civil law, civildisobedience, and international criminal tribunals (e.g., Nuremberg) maybe addressed. Specific questions considered will include what law isfor, how natural law may be known, and what elements of human natureprovide a basis for universal morality in law. (5 units)

125. Aristotle and Aquinas on Justice (E, P, H)

Exploration of the role of justice in a virtuous society through thelens of Aristotle and Thomas Aquinas. Emphasis will be placed on thestudy of human nature and its need for the habit of justice for personalperfection within a complete society. Particular questions will include:What is justice and what is its connection to law and society? What doesit mean to deprive someone of justice? Are there different types ofjustice? How can a person practice justice as a virtue? What is thecommon good and how does it differ from the greater good? (5 units)

126. Utilitarianism (E, P, H)

一道本不卡免费高清Philosophical inquiry into utilitarianism as a mode of consequentialistethics. Particular attention will be given to questions concerning theparticular good(s) sought (pleasure, happiness, preferences, avoidanceof pain), the vehicles used (acts, rules), as well as the manner ofevaluating the theory for a particular case (options and prognoses).Criticisms of consequentialist ethical evaluation will also beconsidered. Readings may draw from ancient, modern, and contemporarysources. (5 units)

127. Marx and Ethics (E, P, H)

一道本不卡免费高清Examination of Marx's ethical thought in the context of traditionalethical theory (Aristotle, Kant) and in relationship to his politicalviews and philosophy of history. Topics may include alienation, thehuman essence, the individual, community, needs, freedom, equality,rights, and justice. Satisfies the Ethics Core requirement for thebachelor's degree in all undergraduate colleges except the BusinessSchool. (5 units)

128. Metaethics (E, P, S)

Examination of the nature, status, and foundations of ethics andmorality. Topics explored may include: Are there moral truths? Are theremoral facts? Is anything really right or wrong, permissible orimpermissible, etc.? What is "the good" and how have different peopleand peoples conceived of it? Conceptions of ethics discussed mayinclude: moral non-cognitivism, moral relativism, moral nihilism, moralrealism, moral naturalism, and non-naturalism. Prerequisites:Recommended: one course in ethics; PHIL 19. (5 units)

129. Feminist Political Theory (E, P)

一道本不卡免费高清Examination of the nature of equality through the lens of gender andrace, especially the intersection of these. Our focus will be thedevelopment of feminist political theories, which both influenced andcame out of political struggles for equality (especially those dealingwith the intersection of gender and race). These theories will provideus with frameworks through which to analyze the pursuit of women'sequality and the way in which this continues to be intertwined with thepursuit of racial justice in the United States. Topics covered includepower imbalances and how they shape ethical and legal rights claims,intersectional feminism, justice in the family, workplacediscrimination, feminist critiques of group rights arguments,representation and recognition, sexual exploitation, and pornography.Fulfills the Diversity: U.S. Perspectives Core requirement. (5 units)

Upper-Division Courses: History of Western Philosophy

141. Ancient Philosophy (E, H)

一道本不卡免费高清Study of one major philosopher or philosophical issue (such assubstance, causation, or virtue) from the ancient period. Specificvariations include 141A (Socrates; also listed as CLAS 146), 141B(Plato), 141C (Aristotle), 141D (Love and Relationships in ClassicalAntiquity; also listed as WGST 133 and CLAS 141), 141E (The Stoics),141F (Hellenistic and Roman Philosophy) and 141G (Special Topics).Recommended: PHIL 14. (5 units)

142. Medieval Philosophy (H)

Study of one major philosopher or philosophical issue (such asuniversals, existence and the nature of God, or free will) from themedieval period. Specific variations include 142A (Neoplatonism), 142B(Augustine), 142C (Aquinas), 142D (Special Topics). Recommended: PHIL

  1. (5 units)

143. Modern Philosophy (H)

Study of one major philosopher or issue (such as mind and body,skepticism and knowledge, or causation) from the modern period. Specificvariations include 143A (Descartes), 143B (Hume), 143C (Kant), 143D(Hegel), 143E (Kierkegaard), 143F (Nietzsche), and 143G (SpecialTopics). Recommended: PHIL 15 for 143A, B, and G; PHIL 16 for 143C--F.(5 units)

144. Contemporary European Philosophy: Phenomenology (H)

一道本不卡免费高清An introduction to the 20th-century phenomenological tradition ofphilosophy, addressing the foundational works of Husserl, Heidegger, andMerleau-Ponty as well as contemporary developments in the field. (5units)

145. Contemporary European Philosophy: Existentialism (H)

一道本不卡免费高清Survey of existentialism, its analysis of the basic structures of humanexistence, particularly freedom and the experience of living in abroken---even absurd---world, and its major thinkers, such asKierkegaard, Dostoevsky, Nietzsche, Heidegger, Camus, Sartre, and deBeauvoir. (5 units)

Upper-Division Courses: Metaphysics and Epistemology

150. Wittgenstein (H, S)

A study of the philosophy of the 20th-century philosopher LudwigWittgenstein, focusing on his logical theory, metaphysics, epistemology,and works Philosophical Investigations and On Certainty. (5 units)

151. The Analytic Tradition (H, S)

Examination of the major currents in 20th-century Anglo-Americanphilosophy. Philosophers studied may include Frege, Russell, Carnap,Moore, Wittgenstein, and Austin; movements may include logicalpositivism and ordinary language philosophy. Recommended: PHIL 19. (5units)

152. Problems of Moral Knowledge (E, P, S)

一道本不卡免费高清An investigation into the intersection of ethics and epistemology. Thiscourse is principally concerned with (1) the nature of ethics and (2)the nature and possibility of moral knowledge. Issues to be discussedmay include cognitivism and noncognitivism in ethics, moral relativism,moral realism, moral intuitionism, and moral skepticism. Recommended:PHIL 19 (5 units)

153. Philosophy of Science (S)

一道本不卡免费高清Exploration of selected philosophic questions that arise in contemporaryscience, especially physics. Topics include the nature of scientificknowing, the roles of theory and experiment in scientific progress, thesense in which theoretical entities like quarks and electrons can besaid to be "real," and the paradoxes of quantum mechanics. Specialattention will also be given to the complex relationship between scienceand society, and the role of values in scientific inquiry. Recommended:PHIL 19. Fulfills STS Core requirement. (5 units)

154. The Problem of Free Will (S)

Philosophical investigation of the free-will problem. Discussion ofconcepts of freedom, fate, causation, and God. Recommended: PHIL 19. (5units)

155. Skepticism (H, S)

一道本不卡免费高清Study of the problem of skepticism from its origin in ancient Greece tothe present day. Considers both skeptical positions and views criticalof skepticism. Readings may include Sextus Empiricus, Descartes, Hume,and Wittgenstein. Recommended: PHIL 14, 15, or 19. (5 units)

156. Knowledge, Truth, and Belief (P, S)

一道本不卡免费高清Examination of major issues in the theory of knowledge. Topics mayinclude justification of belief, a priori knowledge, perception, andtheories of truth. Recommended: PHIL 19. (5 units)

157. Analytical Metaphysics (S)

This course will introduce students to several core topics incontemporary metaphysics, which is roughly the study of the fundamentalstructure or nature of reality. We will investigate questions such as:What are properties or attributes, and how do we explain the fact thattwo distinct objects seem to share the same property? What is time, andis time travel possible? How do things persist through time, and whatmakes a human person remain the same person over time? Is free will anddeterminism compatible, and how is free will possible if actions areundetermined? Recommended: PHIL 19. (5 units)

158. Philosophy of Mind (S)

Examination of issues relating to the existence and nature of mind andits relation to body. Recommended: PHIL 19. (5 units)

159. Social Construction of Reality (E, S)

This course is a philosophical examination of the social construction ofreality. What does it mean to say something is socially constructed?What is the relation between social construction and reality? What isthe relation between social construction and justice? Topics may includethe nature of material objects, facts and scientific inquiry, knowledge,sexuality, gender, and race. Recommended: PHIL 19. (5 units)

160. Philosophy of Mental Illness (S)

Examination of issues relating to the existence and nature of mentalillness and its relation to the body. Recommended: PHIL 19. (5 units)

161. Philosophy of Emotion (S)

Examination of issues relating to the existence and nature of emotionsand their relation to the body. Recommended: PHIL 19. (5 units)

162. Philosophy of Language (P, S)

一道本不卡免费高清Examines the natures of meaning, communication, and language itself, aswell as how language and thought relate to the world. (5 units)

164. Special Topics in Metaphysics and Epistemology (S)

Selected philosophical problems in metaphysics and/or epistemologystudied at an advanced level. Recommended: PHIL 19. (5 units)

165. Philosophical Issues in Virtual Reality (E, S)

一道本不卡免费高清An in-depth examination of the psychological, technological, andphilosophical issues emerging as a result of virtual reality (VR)technologies. Students will gain competence identifying and usingdifferent virtual and augmented reality technologies both theoreticallyand practically. Psychological questions concerning the nature of"presence" and empathy in VR environments will be explored, along withethical questions about the permissibility of using VR technology forvarious purposes. Recommended: PHIL 19. (5 units)

Upper-Division Courses: Non-Western Philosophy

174. Uncertainty, Conflict, and Self-Development: Chinese Perspectives (H)

In-depth study of one or more influential classic texts and/or figuresof Chinese philosophy, from the ancient through the modern period.Connections to Western and other traditions of philosophy, as well ascontemporary issues. Readings may include the Yijing (or Classic ofChanges), th eAnalects of Confucius, the Daodejing, the Zhuangzi, theSunzi (or Art of War一道本不卡免费高清), the Platform Sutra, Zhu Xi, and others.Recommended: PHIL 14, 15, 16, or 19. Fulfills Culture and Ideas 3 Corerequirement. (5 units)

175. Chinese Philosophy (H)

Study of major philosophical traditions of China, includingConfucianism, Daoism, Mohism, Legalism, and Buddhism. Areas of emphasismay include topics in ethics, social and political philosophy, andaesthetics, including the cultivation of self and community, propergovernance, liberation, cosmology, and the arts. Fulfills Culture andIdeas 3 Core requirement. (5 units)

176. Buddhist Philosophy (H, E)

一道本不卡免费高清This course concerns the philosophy of Buddhism. Topics may include theFour Noble Truths, the Eightfold Path, Buddhist metaphysics, includingthe nature of the self, karma, rebirth, salvation, and dependentorigination, and Buddhist ethics. The course may also address thedifferences between various Buddhist traditions and Buddhism's impact onWestern philosophy. Fulfills Culture and Ideas 3 Core requirement. (5units)

177. Indian Philosophy (H)

This course is a historical and thematic examination of the majororthodox and heterodox philosophical systems of India, including thoseof the Vedas, Upanishads, Bhagavadgita一道本不卡免费高清, Vedanta, Jainism, andBuddhism. Central themes and questions include: What are valid sourcesof knowledge? What is consciousness? What is the nature of the self? Whois the ethical agent? (5 units)

178. Arabic Philosophy (H)

一道本不卡免费高清This course explores the main questions of Islamic philosophy from thegreat translation movement of ancient Greek texts in the eighth-to-ninthcenturies CE until the debates of the 13th-to-14th centuries CE.Philosophers considered may include al-Kindi, al-Farabi, Ibn Sina(Avicenna), al-Ghazali, and Ibn Rushd (Averroes). Particular topics mayinclude debates over the use of Greek thought (Aristotelian andNeoplatonic) in religion, being, eternity, God, freedom, ethics,creation, and law. (5 units)

179. Jewish Philosophy (H)

Exploration of ancient, medieval, and modern Jewish philosophy.Particular emphasis will be placed on the combination of Greek andHebraic thought in understandings and examinations of God, time,freedom, universals, justice, transcendence and immanence, andtranslation and interpretation of religious texts (allegorical,symbolic, etc.). Further topics may include the role of the Holocaust,personhood, infinity, ethics, politics, and law. Key figures may includePhilo, Judah Halevi, Moses Maimonides, Gersonides, Buber, and Levinas.(5 units)

180. Special Topics in Non-Western Philosophy (H)

This course will be an in-depth study of a single topic, philosopher, orphilosophy in a non-Western tradition. For example, the course may focuson the works and ideas of a single philosopher such as Confucius,Zhuangzi, or Dogen. Or the course may focus on a theme as treated byvarious philosophers from a tradition, such as debates about perceptionin Indian philosophy, ethical cultivation in Chinese philosophy, or thenature of the self in Japanese philosophy. Additionally, this course mayinclude comparative philosophy approaches in which a topic is addressedin more than one non-Western tradition. (5 units)

Upper-Division Courses: Other

181. Philosophy of Art (E, H)

Philosophical examination of the historical development of the aestheticconcepts of taste and beauty. Specific variations include 181A (Kant and19th Century Aesthetics), 181B (Contemporary Aesthetics), 181C(Aesthetics and the Avant Garde), 181D (Cross-Cultural Aesthetics), and181E (Special Topics in Aesthetics). (5 units)

183. Philosophy and Film (E)

一道本不卡免费高清This course focuses on the aesthetic and ethical dimensions of Englishlanguage films, from the silent era to the present. We will discuss atleast some of the following topics: What makes a film, screenplay, ornovel, "good"? This will include discussion of the aesthetic and ethicalvalues that contribute to the quality of film and literature. What isthe role of artistic intention in understanding and evaluating film(including the "auteur theory" account of cinematic creation and the"intentional fallacy"). What role do various types of interpretation andgenre play in understanding and evaluating the quality of film andliterature? What, if any, is the proper place of various types ofcensorship, from the "production code" of the 1930s to the MotionPicture Association of America (MPAA) rating system in place today? (5units)

184. Philosophy of Religion (E, H)

Philosophical inquiry, based on both classical and contemporary views,as to whether the existence of God can be rationally demonstrated,whether it is compatible with evil, how human beings relate to God, thenature of faith, and the nature of religious language. (5 units)

185A. University Ethics Bowl Team (E, P)

一道本不卡免费高清Participation in the Santa Clara University Ethics Bowl Team, including in-depth weekly analyses of cases in applied ethics, culminating in a regional or national debate. Students will be required to study background facts, key definitions, relevant moral principles, and methods of applying those principles to answer questions about the applied ethics cases. Field trips required. This course may be repeated as PHIL 185B for 1 unit. 185A fulfills Civic Engagement Core requirement. (5 units)

185B. University Ethics Bowl Practicum (E, P)

一道本不卡免费高清See PHIL 185A.

186. Philosophy of Race (E, P)

一道本不卡免费高清Examination of scholarship regarding the conceptual, ontological,epistemological, and normative questions pertaining to race. Subjectsstudied may include the historical origins and development of theconcept of race, race as a biological category, contemporaryphilosophical debates over whether races actually exist, therelationship between the continued use of racial categories and thepersistence of racism, the differences between race and ethnicity,debates among moral, political, and legal philosophers over the validityand source of racial identity, racial solidarity, race-based culture,and race-specific public policies such as affirmative action andrace-based representation. Fulfills Diversity Core requirement. (5units)

198. Senior Research Thesis

Creation of a carefully researched and scholarly paper, under the activedirection of a selected member of the department's faculty. Ofparticular value to senior students who intend to pursue graduatestudies. Prerequisite: Previous arrangement with instructor anddepartment chair. (5 units)

199. Directed Research

一道本不卡免费高清Tutorial work with demanding requirements for advanced students inparticular problem areas not otherwise accessible through courses.Prerequisite: Previous arrangement with the instructor and departmentchair. (2--5 units)

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